The most common side effect of renal calculi is pain in the pelvic region, ranging from mild to severe.  This pain may be dependent on the size, shape, and/or location of the calculus. Secondary symptoms may include vomiting, fever and chills, and/or blood in the urine. There are four basic types of calculi described in this selection.


Calcium- Based Calculi:

The most common type of calcium-based calculi is oxalate, which is a waste product of     metabolism. Diet plays a role in stone formation. Drink at least  2.5-3 liters of water a day. Limit protein intake to 0.7-0.8 gm/kg of body weight. Keep vitamin C intake to RDA of 60 mg/day. Limit sodium to 1.5 gm/day. Consume adequate calcium of 1000 mg/day through foods, beverages, or supplements. Limit the diet intake to between 40-50 mg of oxalates per day.

Don’t restrict fluid intake. This will make urine more concentrated and increase the risk     of stone formation. Don’t have a high-protein-style diet. Don’t  have excessive amounts of vitamin C (1000 mg/day) through foods or supplements. Don’t take food and beverages that are high in sodium. Don’t take  high-oxalate foods and beverages (for example, cocoa, tea, wheat bran, nuts, peanut butter, peanut oil, walnut oil, rhubarb, strawberries, beets, spinach, and Swiss  chard).  Don’t restrict calcium intake.


Foods High in Oxalate

Drinks: Beer, chocolate milk, soy drinks, tangerine juice, juice of almost all berries and fruit cocktail, and hot cocoa.

Fruits: Rhubarb, currants, lemon, marmalade, purple grapes, tangerine and berries.

Vegetables: Cucumber, kale, green peppers, celery, eggplant, escarole, beets, chives, okra, parsley, spinach.

Grains: Whole wheat bread, popcorn, wheat bran, oatmeal, white corn and soybean crackers.

Legumes, Nuts and Seeds: Beans, baked beans, peanut butter, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, peanuts, almonds, pecans, cashew and walnuts.

Condiments: Black pepper, cinnamon and ginger.

Starches: Fruit cake, sweet potatoes and grits.


Uric Acid – A product of Purine Metabolism:

Try to drink atleast between 2.5-3 liters of water a day. Limit protein intake to 0.7-0.8 gm/kg of body weight. Limit sodium to 1.5 gm/day. Limit alcohol intake, especially beer and scotch. Alcohol increases Purine production, leading to higher uric acid levels in the blood and urine.

Limit high-fat foods because fat holds onto uric acid in the kidneys. Take adequate carbohydrates because carbohydrates help extra uric acid in blood. Overweight patients should remember that weight loss should be done gradually because quick weight loss may increase uric acid levels. Take foods that are low in purines.

Don’t restrict fluid intake. This will make urine more concentrated and increase risk of stone formation. Don’t take a high- animal-based protein diet; limit meat to 3 ounces per day. Don’t take food and beverages that are high in sodium. Don’t have foods and beverages that are high in Purines.


Foods Highest in Purine

Sweetbreads                     Salmon, canned

Anchovies                          Chiken Gravies

Sardines, Canned             Scallops

Liver                                    Herring

Kidneys                               Smelts

Heart                                   Roe

Meat Extracts                    Yeast

Meat Broths, bouillon


Foods High In Purine

Bacon                              Mutton

Meat Soups                    Duck

Beef                                 Shellfish

Perch                               Goose

Turkey                             Codfish

Pork                                 Lentils

Chicken Soup                 Liver sausage



 Foods Moderately High in Purine

Asparagus                      Navy Beans

Bluefish                             Spinach

Oatmeal                            Ham

Cauliflower                       Tuna fish

Oysters                              Kidney beans

Chicken                              White fish

Peas                                    Lima beans

Crab                                     Lobster

Salmon                                Mushrooms



Foods Containing Little Purine:

Beverages: Carbonated, fruit juices,

Postum, chocolate, cocoa

Breads: White bread and crackers, cornbread

Cereals and cereal products: corn, macaroni, noodles, rice, tapioca, refined wheat

Cheese of all kinds


Fats (use only amounts allowed)

Fruits of all kinds


Milk in all forms

Nuts of all kinds

Pies except mincemeat

Shad roe

Sugar and sweets

Vegetables of all kinds except those previously mentioned

Vegetable and milk soups

Vitamin concentrates




Certain persons have a rare genetic disorder that causes them to excrete too much of the amino acid, cystine, in the urine. The patient should drink at least 2-3 liters of fluids (especially water) to help keep urine as dilute as dilute as possible.



Struvite or Infected Stones:

Struvite or infected stones are generally found in paralyzed person, persons with an abnormal urinary tract, and women with frequent urinary tract infections. The stones form in the presence of a long- standing infection with certain bacteria (for example, proteus, and staphylococci) that converts urea into ammonia, alkalizing the urine and precipitating magnesium ammonium phosphate. Advise the patient that there are no dietary recommendations for persons with this type of stone.