This is discussed under following –

Poor appetite


Edema or water retention

Iron deficiency anaemia

Meeting nutrient needs


Food safety

Use of artificial sweeteners

Use of caffeinated beverages and alcohol



Have small amounts of food frequently.

Snacking may be easier if meals seem too difficult.

Try sipping fruit juices/nectars and nutritious shakes (for example, Carnation Instant Breakfast or homemade shakes using yogurt and fruit ).

Take advantage of times when appetite is better and have more food.

Remind importance  of eating for nutrition and not only for hunger or appetite.



Eat small, frequent meals and low-fat snacks in a relaxed setting.

Eat slowly and stay upright after eating.

Take a walk after meals.

Wait at least 2 hours before lying down and elevate the upper body when sleeping.

Don’t have high-fat, spicy food and foods that tend to “revisit.”

Don’t have spearmint, peppermint, and caffeine.



Keep monitor weight gain and blood pressure.

Rule out hypertension and the appearance of proteinuria.

Assess amount of sodium in diet.

Elevate feet whenever possible.

Don’t limit fluid intake, which will only worsen the problem,

Don’t eat  salt foods.

Don’t  have processed foods and high-sodium items (for example, soups, salty snacks, pickles, cured meats, cold cuts, and some fast foods).

Don’t use diuretics unless Prescribed by your doctor.



Take high-iron foods (for example, beef, liver, fish, clams, cooked oysters, poultry, dried peas, beans, lentils, and fortified cereals); accompany with vitamin C-rich food to aid iron absorption from meats.

Have the iron supplement as advised by your doctor.

Decrease the dose if side effects (for example, nausea, cramps, constipation, and diarrhea) persist.

Or try a slow- release preparation at mealtime if approved by PMD. Continue with prenatal vitamin.

Don’t consume any raw oysters, clams, or any uncooked seafood.

Don’t have coffee or teas, which can inhibit iron absorption.

Don’t take an iron supplement with milk products.



Increase food sources and/or supplements of the following nutrients:

  • Iron (see iron deficiency anemia in the previous section).
  • Folate (for example, leafy, dark green vegetables, legumes dried beans and peas, citrus fruits and juices, most berries, and fortified breakfast cereals). The recommended intake of folate is 600 mg per day. A supplement of 400 mg per day of folic acid is advisable with the doctors’ approval.
  • Vitamin B12 (for example, cooked clams, oysters, liver, herring, crab, liver, salmon, lobster, beef, and all bran cereal).
  • If vegan, you must consume a reliable vitamin B12 source (for example, fortified soymilk or a supplement).
  • Zinc (for example, cooked oysters, crab,dark meat of turkey, wheat bran flakes cereal, and cherries).

Don’t have supplements without approval from the doctor.

Don’t take fish over 12 oz. per week to avoid over consumption of mercury.



Take plenty of vegetables and fruits in all meals and snacks

100% whole wheat bread, bread, bran, and whole- grain cereals or muffins.

Take plenty of fluids (at least eight 8-oz. glasses per day).

Try dried apricots, prunes, and prune juice.

Consider how to increase iron- rich foods to substitute for the supplement which may be binding, if patient  is taking an iron supplement.

Do  regular, appropriate physical activity.

Don’t use mineral oil or other “natural” remedies.

Don’t take laxatives.



Use natural sugar in moderate amounts.

Don’t use artificial sweeteners without an approval from your doctor.

Women with phenylketonuria should not use aspartame (equal).



Meats and seafood

Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from ready-to eat foods in the refrigerator, and while preparing and handling foods.

Cook meats and seafood thoroughly before eating.


Dairy and Eggs

Check labels on the entire dairy and egg products to certain they are pasteurized.

Cook eggs thoroughly until the yolks and whites are firm.

Fruits and Vegetables

Wash thoroughly all raw produce with running water, especially fruit rinds that are removed (for example, melons, oranges).

Serve only pasteurized juice (found in the refrigerated section of the store) or shelf- stable juices (for example, juice boxes).

Follow the 2- hour rule.

Discard perishable foods left at room temperature for over 2 hours.

On hot days, 90f or higher, discard food after one hour.



Abstain from the use of any alcoholic beverages.

No safe level has been determined for pregnant women; therefore, most health professional organizations recommend abstaining.

Don’t allow any type of alcoholic beverages.


Encourage moderate intake of teas, coffee, and cola.

Don’t have more than a maximum of 2-3 cups per day of coffee and tea.