Nutrition In Infants -Do\’s And Don\’t
EXCESSIVE JUICE INTAKE:-
Limit the intake of juice to 4-6 ounces per day because excessive quantities cause an osmotic diarrhea. Provide pasteurized 100% fruit juice. Serve juice only in a cup.
Don’t provide juice before 6 months of age or allow the infant to drink juice from a bottle.
Mash or puree foods to decrease the risk of aspiration.
Don’t provide the following foods: nuts, raisins or other small dried fruits, raw carrots, whole or round cut hot dogs, grapes, popcorn, potato chips, or rounded candies.
Assess the required intake as listed: the number of wet diapers (six to eight per day) and stool patterns are helpful in assessing the intake of the breast-fed infant; consult the PMD if patterns are severe or prolonged. Provide referrals to community and government programs to assist with food access if in financial hardship.
Have as base dietary reference intakes (DRI):
Calories: 98-108 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per day
Protein: 1.5 gram per kilogram of body weight per day
Vitamin D: 5 micrograms per day
Iron: 0.27-11 milligrams per day
Zinc: 2-3 milligrams per day
*In 2008 the AAP doubled the recommended amount of vitamin D for infants, children, and adolescents.
In infants less than 6 months old, base DRI for protein on the adequate intake (mean intake) of the breast-fed infant; therefore, it does not represent an upper limit or in tend to meet the needs of 97-98% of estimated needs, as is the case with the recommended daily allowances (RDA).
Don’t forget to use corrected age when plotting infants who were born prematurely. Don’t forget to use the correct age for weight through 24 months, height through 36 months, and head circumferences through 18 months of age. Don’t provide more than 4 ounces of juice per day or force feed.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA:-
Start on human milk or iron- fortified formula. Provide iron- fortified rice cereal as the first food followed by weaning foods high in iron; supplement with iron if prescribed by the PMD.
Don’t use formulas low in iron or unfortified milks ( cow, soy, or goat milk).
Ensure proper positioning of the bottle to decrease the amount of air present in the nipple during feeding. Verify that the mixture of formula is correct.
Don’t over feed the infant.
Discuss the normalcy of infants spitting up, and encourage burping. Verify that the mixture of formula is correct.
Don’t over feed or force feed. Don’t provide excessive movement after feeding or lay the infant flat on his or her back after feeding.
Determine adequacy of fluid intake. Verify the mixture of formula is correct. Obtain diet history if taking complementary foods.
Don’t provide juice excessively, which may displace other nutrients.