Nutrition In Toddler – Do\’s And Don\’t

 

TODDLER THROUGH PRESCHOOL AGE (1-6 YEARS)

 

BOTTLE DEPENDENCY:-

DO:

      Offer a cup with every  meal and put a very small amount of liquid in it;  try giving the same liquid as in the bottle. Limit the  bottle to specific times and places.

DON’T;

            Don’t offer a bottle instead of cup when the child refuses the cup. Don’t  allow the child to run around with a bottle. Don’t put juice in a bottle.

 

PICKY EATING:-

DO:

Offer small amounts of new food at least 10-14 times, which may be necessary to increase acceptance of new food. Offer choices selected by the parent/caregiver,  but do let the child choose which one he or she wants from these. Offer new food along with one they already like.

Remember portion sizes are much smaller for this group, one-fourth to one-third of an adult portion. Larger portions may be overwhelming. Offer new food at the beginning of a meal when the child may be hungrier. As the child gets older, allow him or her to participate in meal preparation, which can increase his or her acceptance of a new food. Provide  a multi-vitamin with minerals if this will erase parent anxiety and decrease battles at mealtimes.

DON’T:

           Don’t interpret first food refusals as not liking the food. Don’t be a short-order cook and provide substitutes because children usually make up calories on their own if they don’t eat at a meal. Don’t bribe or reward with treats or sweets. Don’t force a child to eat or punish him or her for not eating. Don’t make mealtime a battleground for controlling overeating.

 

GRAZING:-

DO:

      Set times and places for eating, no matter if it is a snack or a meal. Give water only between a snack or meal if the child requests food or a drink.

 

DON’T:

           Don’t allow the child to run around with food in his or her hand. Don’t put large portions on the plate.

 

POOR GROWTH:-

DO:

      Choose whole milk and dairy products. Add monosaturated oil and/or butter to acceptable foods; feed nuts and seeds, which are higher in calories (for greater than 3 years old). Decrease distractions at mealtime to allow focus on eating/mealtime and have a set time and place for food consumption. Provide referrals to community and government programs to assist with food access if in financial hardship. Have evaluation by PMD if food avoidance is severe or prolonged.

DON’T:

           Don’t forget to use corrected age when plotting infants born prematurely; also use correct age for weight trough 24 months, height through 36 months, and head circumferences through 18 months of age. Don’t choose skim milk or low-fat dairy products. Don’t allow unlimited juice or low-calorie foods/ drinks because this can displace nutrient dense foods/drinks. Don’t forces feed.

 

EXCESS WEIGHT GAIN:-

DO:

       Offer healthy foods for meals and snacks. Offer low-fat or possibly skim milk and dairy products after 2 years of age. Let the child determine the amount they will eat at each meal or snack;  however the parent/caregiver makes the food choices from which they select.  Decrease distractions at mealtime to focus on what is being eaten and how much . Increase activity. Have a set time and place for eating any food or calorie containing liquid.

DON’T:

           Don’t bribe to encourage weight loss. Don’t allow greater than 2 hours of TV or computer time per day. Don’t focus on calories or weight. Don’t  allow excessive soda and juice intake.

 

CHOKING RISKS:-

 DO:

        Cut up foods in very small pieces. Offer softer foods that are easy to chew. Mix gravy or broth with chewier /drier foods.

 

 

DON’T:

            Don’t give peanuts, other nuts and seeds, hard candy, raisins or other small dried fruits, raw carrots, whole or round cut hot dogs, grapes, or apple skin.

 

IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA:-

DO:

      Offer foods high in iron: red meats, dried beans, iron-fortified cereals. Evaluate further by the PMD if needed.

DON’T:

          Don’t allow excess milk intake, which can displace other foods/nutrients.

 

CONSTIPATION:-

DO:

     Determine adequacy of fluid intake. Include more vegetables and fruits, whether cooked or raw, for the older child. Include also whole grain bread, pasta, rice, and cereals. See fiber in the index. Incorporate regular physical activity.

DON’T:

           Don’t serve refined starches (food containing sugar). Don’t limit fluid intake unless medically necessary. Don’t provide excess juice, which may displace other nutrients and/ or provide excess calories.

 

 SCHOOLE AGE (6-12 YEARS) CHILDREN

POOR GROWTH:-

DO:

       Emphasize high-calorie, dense foods including whole milk and dairy products. Provide referrals to community and government programs to assist with food access if in financial hardship. Explore further evaluation by PMD if experiencing severe or prolonged growth failure.

Ensure proper positioning of the bottle to decrease the amount of air present in the nipple during feeding. Verify that the mixture of formula is correct.

 

 

DON’T:

           Don’t over feed the infant.

SPITTING UP:-

DO:

       Discuss the normalcy of infants spitting up, and encourage burping. Verify that the mixture of formula is correct.

DON’T:

              Don’t over feed or force feed. Don’t provide excessive movement after feeding or lay the infant flat on his or her back after feeding.

 

CONSTIPATION:-

DO:

     Determine adequacy of fluid intake. Verify the mixture of formula is  correct. Obtain diet history if taking complementary foods.

DON’T:

           Don’t provide juice excessively, which may displace other nutrients.