PHYSICAL INDICATORS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

 

  BODY AREA SIGNS OF GOOD

NUTRITION

SIGNS OF MALNUTRITION
1. HEAD TO NECK    
a. Hair Shiny Dull, dry ,thin,  wirelike, sparse, brittle. Scalp –rough, flaky
b. Face Skin smooth Pale or mottled, dark under eyes, swollen, scaling or flakiness, lumpiness
c. Eyes Bright Dry membranes, redness, fissures at corners, red
d. Lips Smooth Red, swollen, lesions or fissures
e. Tongue Deep red Scarlet or purplish color. Raw, swollen, smooth
f. Teeth

 

Straight. None missing Cavities, black or gray spots, erupting abnormally, missing
g. Gums Firm, pink, smooth, no bleeding Spongy, bleed easily,inflammation, receded, atrophied
2. Skin Smooth, moist, uniform color Dry, flaky, scaling, “gooseflesh,” swollen, grayish, bruises due to capillary bleeding under skin, no fat layer under skin
3. Glands No thyroid enlargement. No lumps at parotid juncture Front of neck and cheeks become swollen, lumps visible at parotid: goiter visible if advanced hypothyroidism
4. Nails Pink nail beds, smooth, firm, flexible, uniform shape

 

 

Brittle, ridged, pale nail beds, clubbed, spoon shaped
5. Muscle and

Skeletal system

Good posture, firm, well- developed muscles, good mobility; no malformations of skeleton Flaccid, wasted muscles, weakness, tenderness, decreased reflexes, difficulty in walking

 

Children : beading ribs, swelling at ends of bones, abnormal protrusion of frontal or parietal areas

6. Internal  systems    
a. Gastrointestinal Flat abdomen, liver not tender to palpate, normal size Distended, enlarged abdomen, ascites,  hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) children; “potbelly”
b.  Cardiovascular Normal pulse rate; normal blood pressure Pulse rate exceeds 100 beats/ in, blood pressure elevated, mental confusion, edema