VITAMINS AND MINERALS : FUNCTIONS AND FOOD SOURCES

NUTRIENTS FUNCTIONS FOOD SOURCE
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS-

 

   
THIAMINE (B1)

 

 

Coenzyme in cellular metabolism

 

Whole grains,legumes
RIBOFLAVIN  (B2)

 

Component of  the electron transport chain

 

Most foods

 

NIACIN

 

Component of metabolism

 

Lean meats, grains, legumes

 

PYRIDOXINE

 

Coenzyme in metabolism

 

Meat , vegetables, whole grains

 

PANTOTHENIC ACID

 

Component of metabolism

 

Most foods

 

FOLACIN

 

Coenzyme of cellular metabolism

 

Legumes, green vegetables, whole wheat

 

B12

 

Coenzyme of metabolism in nucleolus

 

Muscle meat, eggs, dairy products

 

 

BIOTIN

 

Coenzyme of cellular metabolism

 

Meats , vegetables, legumes

 

ASCORBIC  ACID

 

Maintains  connective tissue, immune system

 

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, green, peppers

 

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS-

 

   
B-CAROTENE  (PRO VITAMIN A)

 

Sight

 

Dark green vegetables, yellow orange vegetables, fruit

 

 

RETINOL  (A)

 

Sight, component of rhodopsin, maintains tissues

 

Milk, butter, cheese

 

CHOLECALCIFEROL (D)

 

Bone growth, and maintenance, calcium absorption

 

 

Eggs, dairy products

 

TOCOPHEROL (E)

 

Antioxidant, protects cellular integrity

 

Seeds, green leafy vegetables, margarine

 

PHYLLOQUINONE (K) Role in blood clotting Green leafy vegetables, cereals, fruits, meats
 

MINERALS

 

   
CALCIUM

 

Bone and tooth formation,muscle contraction,action potentials. Milk,cheese,dark green vegetables.
PHOSPHORUS

 

Bone and tooth formation, acid-base, chemical energy

 

Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, grains, fish,

 

POTASSIUM

 

Action potential, acid-base, body water balance

 

Leafy vegetables, cantaloupe, lima beans, potatoes, milk, beans

 

SULPHUR (S)

 

Acid-base, liver function

 

Proteins, dried food

 

SODIUM

 

Action potential, acid-base, osmolality , body water balance

 

Fruits, vegetables, table salt

 

CHLORINE

 

Membrane potential, fluid balance

 

Fruits, vegetables, table salt

 

MAGNESIUM

 

Co-factor for enzyme function

 

Whole grains, green leafy vegetables

 

IRON (Fe)

 

Component of  hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes

 

Eggs, lean meat, legumes, whole grain, green leafy vegetables

 

FLUORIDE (F)

 

Bone structure

 

Water, seafood

 

ZINC (Zn)

 

Components of enzymes of digestion

 

Most foods

 

COPPER (Cu)

 

Component if enzymes of iron metabolism

 

Meat, water

 

SELENIUM (Se)

 

Functions with vitamin E

 

Seafood, meat, grains

 

IODINE (I)

 

Components of thyroid hormones

 

Marine fish and shellfish, dairy products, vegetables, iodized salt

 

CHROMIMUM (Cr)

 

Required for glycolysis

 

Legumes, cereals, whole grains

 

MOLYBDENUM (Mo)

 

Co-factor for several enzymes Fats, vegetables, oil, meats whole grains